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Transregio 29 „Industrial Product-Service Systems – Dynamic Interdependency of Product and Service in Production Area“ - Partial Project C5 – Integrating heterogeneity in IPS²

 

Project Duration: 07/2010 – 06/2014
Project Leader: Prof. Dr. Uta Wilkens
Project Members: Bernd-Friedrich Voigt | Antje Lienert
Funding: German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG)

Background and Aims:

To ensure successful IPS² design and delivery, various fields of expertise need to be integrated. In contrast to traditional work systems service, provision in IPS² is not dependent solely a supplier’s performance but also depends on an integration of processes. Consequently, there is a high demand for coordination, communication and knowledge integration among the original manufacturer, its suppliers and customers. Against this background, personal competencies that enable social actors to perform within the heterogeneous work system of an IPS2 are mandatory for the system’s sucess. The purpose of our research project lies in the specification, measurement and development of such competencies.

To research in knowledge-intensive services, an Industrial Product Service System can be characterized as a communication-intensive organization. There is a need to solve novel problems on a collective basis through the integration of various parties’ expert knowledge. This especially applies to the design and delivery phase of Industrial Product Service Systems.

Although it is assumed that such heterogeneous teams, due to their broader knowledge base, develop better products and services and ensure lower development costs than homogeneous teams, empirical studies in the field of team diversity show that capitalizing on the potential advantages of team members’ heterogeneity is a difficult challenge.

Increasing heterogeneity can, for example, lead to barriers in communication and cooperation, a higher amount of conflict or an increased level of stress among team members.

Consequently, personal competencies in dealing with heterogeneity, enabling employees to communicate successfully across organizational or hierarchical boundaries and within interdisciplinary contexts, become necessary for all employees involved in an IPS².

In this context, a competence can be seen as a behavioural disposition, specifically a cross-situational capacity to act enabling social actors to succeed and solve problems in face of ambiguous and dynamic environments. The term is strictly distinguished from (professional) qualification, which pertains to more formally defined knowledge and skills referring to a specific job profile.

Prior research in communication intensive organizations, for example, has highlighted the importance of collaborators’ customer orientation, openness to networking, individual attitude towards win-win solutions and a shared understanding of product-service integration. In this project, we develop a measurement and development concept for such integration competencies.

In order to do so, we make use of insights from competence research as well as on group research regarding knowledge integration and shared cognition in teams.

In our analysis, we thereby take the individual, as well as, the group level into account which is mandatory for the treatment of an Industrial Product Service System as a system of interaction and knowledge integration. Against this background, we apply a multilevel-model that specifies individual and group specific competencies and identify related development instruments.

As a result of our system-analysis, we provide possible ways to enhance competence development through process design, team organization and leadership. Here, our approach is to identify such mechanisms that can be integrated into everyday work processes and lead to a self-regulated and continuous competence development after their implementation.

Building on these findings, we will further differentiate insights for a variety of business models, particularly with regard to several degrees of automation, and formulate transfer statements which will be assigned to a demonstrator-model.

Publications

  • ELFVING, S. W., WASHINGTON, N., LIENERT, A., MÄNZ, K. & WILKENS, U. (2014): At a Crossroads: Case Study Analysis of the Organizational Challenges within the Transformation Path to an IPS². In: Procedia CIRP 2014: Product Services Systems and Value Creation. Proceedings of the 6th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Elsevier 2014, S.326-331.
  • SÜßE, T. & WILKENS, U. (2014): Preparing Individuals for the Demands of PSS Work Environments through a Game-based Community Approach – Design and Evaluation of a Learning Scenario. In: Procedia CIRP 2014: Product Services Systems and Value Creation. Proceedings of the 6th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Elsevier 2014, S.271-276.
  • VOIGT, B.-F., MÄNZ, K. & WILKENS, U. (2014): What Leadership Pattern can be Observed in IPS2 Work Systems when Compared with Production and Service? In: Procedia CIRP 2014: Product Services Systems and Value Creation. Proceedings of the 6th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Elsevier 2014, S.277-282.
  • WILKENS, U. & RUINER, C. (2014): Konfigurationen von new employment relationships – Zur (In)Stabilität von Arbeitsbeziehungen mit hochqualifizierten Arbeitskräften. In: Managementforschung 24: Arbeit – eine Neubestimmung. Hrsg.: Südow, J.; Koch, J.; Sadowski, D., Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler Verlag, 2014, (angenommen).
  • MÄNZ, K, WILKENS, U., SÜßE, T. & LIENERT, A. (2013): Die Bewältigung hoher Arbeitsanforderungen in HLB. Mitarbeiterkompetenzen als ermöglichender Faktor in HLB-Arbeitsbereichen. wt Werkstattstechnik online. 7/8-2013. S. 583-588. Online: http://www.werkstattstechnik.de/wt/article.php?data[article_id]=73983
  • WILKENS, U., SÜßE, T., MÄNZ, K., SCHIFFER, B. & FABIAN, G. (2013): Preparing University Graduates for Product-Service Work Environments. In: LNPE 6. Product-Service Integration for Sustainable Solutions, Springer Verlag, 2013, S. 621-633.
  • EXTERNBRINK, K., LIENERT, A. & WILKENS, U. (2012): Identifikation von Mitarbeiter- und Teamkompetenzen in hybriden Leistungsbündeln. In: Industrie Management 3/2012, S. 65-69.
  • EXTERNBRINK, K., WILKENS, U. & LIENERT, A. (2013): Antecedents to the Successful Coordination of IPS² Networks - A Dynamic Capability Perspective on Complex Work Systems in the Engineering Sector. In: The Philosopher's Stone for Sustainability. Hrsg.: Shimomura, Y.; Kimita, K. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, S. 103–108.
  • KÜPPER, M. & WILKENS, U. (2012): Umgang mit Risiko als Führungsaufgabe – Lernen von Hochleistungsteams. In: Grote, S. (Hrsg.): Zukunft der Führung. Springer Gabler Verlag. Berlin, Heidelberg. S. 573-584.
  • WILKENS, U. & EXTERNBRINK, K. (2010): Führung in Veränderungsprozessen. In: Busse Colbe, W. von; Coenenberg, A. G.; Kajüter, P.; Linnhoff, U.; Pellens, B. (Hrsg.): Betriebswirtschaft für Führungskräfte. Eine Einführung für Ingenieure, Naturwissenschaftler, Juristen und Geisteswissenschaftler. 4. Auflage. Stuttgart: Schäffer-Poeschel Verlag, S. 209-233.

Conference- and Discussionpapers

  • ELFVING, S. W., WASHINGTON, N., LIENERT, A., MÄNZ, K. & WILKENS, U. (2014): At a Crossroads: Case Study Analysis of the Organizational Challenges within the Transformation Path to an IPS². Paper presented at the 6th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, 01.-02. Mai 2014, Windsor (Kanada).
  • VOIGT, B.-F., MÄNZ, K. & WILKENS, U. (2014): What Leadership Pattern can be Observed in IPS2 Work Systems when Compared with Production and Service?. Paper presented at the 6th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, 01.-02. Mai 2014, Windsor (Kanada).
  • VOIGT, B.-F. (2013): Empirische Forschung zu effektiven Führungsmustern in Integrierten Produkt Service-Systemen im Vergleich zu klassischen Arbeitssystemen der Produkt- bzw. Serviceorganisation, IAW Seminar, 27.11.13, Ruhr-Universität Bochum.
  • LIENERT, A. & SCHIFFER, B. (2013): Where to gain future competencies for Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2)? Presentation at the 41th SEFI Conference “Engineering Education Fast Forward 1973 > 2013 >>”, 16.-20.09.2013, Leuven.
  • SÜßE, T., WILKENS, U. & MÄNZ, K. (2013): Integrating Production and Services for Product-Service-Systems in the Engineering Sector – The Challenge of Servitization from an Organizational Learning Perspective. Paper presented at the 29th EGOS Colloquium „Bridging Continents, Cultures and Worldviews“, 04.-06. Juli 2013, Montréal.
  • WILKENS, U., SÜßE, T. & MÄNZ, K. (2013): Coping with Complex Work Systems in the Engineering Sector - A Dynamic Capability Perspective. Paper presented at SMS Glasgow Special Conference “Strategy in Complex Settings”, 20.-22.06.2013.
  • SPRAFKE, N., EXTERNBRINK, K. & WILKENS, U. (2011): Microfoundations of Dynamic Capabilities - Exploring the Impact of Individual Capabilities and the Role of Empowerment as Additional Condition. Paper presented at the 7th SKM Symposium jointly with 9th International Conference on Competence-based Management, 28-30 September 2011, Johannes Kepler University Linz.
  • EXTERNBRINK, K. (2011): Kompetenzentwicklung als Führungsaufgabe - Einfluss transformationaler Führung auf die Entwicklung dynamischer Fähigkeiten von Individuen, Teams und Organisationen. Vortrag auf dem AUP Kolloquium, Bochum.
  • EXTERNBRINK, K., REIß, C. & WILKENS, U. (2011): Impact of Team Members’ Competence on the Development of Team Mental Models and Team Performance: A theoretical Framework and Propositions. Presentation at the sixth annual INGRoup conference, Minneapolis.
  • EXTERNBRINK, K., REIß, C. & WILKENS, U. (2011): Antecedents and Consequences of Team Mental Models in Project Teams - A Competence Perspective; Paper im download der Kommissionstagung Organisation des VHB, 24./25. Feb. 2011, Berlin.
  • EXTERNBRINK, K. & REIß, C. (2010): Kompetenzen zur Integration von Heterogenität in HLBs, IAW-Seminar, Bochum.
  • WILKENS, U.: "Wandlungsfähige Produktionssysteme benötigen dynamische Fähigkeiten von Organisationen und Individuen", HAB-Tagung 08./09.10.2010 in Hannover.
  • WILKENS, U.: "Hochleistung in Arbeitssystemen aus Sicht der Kompetenzforschung", Expertenworkshop an der Deutschen Universität für Weiterbildung, 14.06.2010, Berlin.
  • WILKENS, U.: "Qualifikation und Organisation heterogener Mitarbeiterteams in HLB", Industriearbeitskreis bei Trumpf in Diezlingen, 03.12.2009.